Machining is the removal of metal chips that are on a machine tool by using a tool which is made of tool steel or carbide. Machining is done on various types of stock materials such as bars, blocks, castings, forgings, etc. and is necessary to produce the required shape and dimensions that are specified in the component drawing. The process is also known as metal cutting. There are three main methods of machining, which are abrasive, cutting, and nontraditional: Abrasive machining is generally grinding. Cutting includes processes such as milling, turning, and drilling, while nontraditional methods may use electricity, chemicals, laser cutting, and water jet cutting.

There are many varieties of machine tools such as: lathes, automatic lathes, CNC machining centers, drills, special purpose machines, borings, gun drillings, tappings, millings, and jig borings, etc. Cutting tool examples are: turning tools, taps for thread cutting, drills, boring tools, reamers, hole mills, end mills, special form cutters, broaches (for spline and slot machining), carbide inserts, solid carbide and brazed carbide tools, etc.

Drilling is considered to be the simplest and most common form of machining processes. The drill uses utilizes a drill bit on it to cut away the piece of metal. In grinding, a grinding wheel or belt is used to cause friction against the piece and remove any unwanted material. Water is often used to help stop the grinding wheel from getting too hot and creating sparks. Grinding is ideal for metal pieces that are too hard to be machined in other ways. Milling machines are used when you need to machine an item that is asymmetric. These machines are good for general machining, but aren’t generally as accurate as turning or grinding. These devices resemble a drill press and there are different kinds of milling machines of which enable you to set the depth of the cut.
Turning is a machining process which is done on a lathe. The lathe turns the piece around as a blade cuts away the desired amount of material from the piece.

Machining components are prepared on individual work stations and each station completes the dimension that is allotted to it. Then it is passed to the next station. The profitability of an organization is determined by how quickly it can produce the maximum number of components, in the shortest possible time, with the smallest number of rejections.

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