Circuit Board Assembly

To reduce manufacturing overheads, electronic and electrical device manufacturing companies usually outsource the assembly work of printed circuit boards (PCB) to companies that specialize in circuit board assembly. These companies offer a full range of services such as circuit design, procurement of materials, assembly of the board and testing.

The circuit board itself is a thin, flat item which is constructed of a non-conducting, fiberglass resin composite. The board is used to mount various computer chips and electronic components onto it. There are usually several circuit boards in most electrical devices such as computers and televisions, etc. Small circuit boards are often referred to as cards. There are various types of circuit boards used in the world of electronics such as motherboards, expansion boards, and network interface cards (NIC).

In a computer, the motherboard is the computer's main circuit board and is also known as the main board or the system board. The major components of a computer such as the CPU, memory chips, and other controlling devices are attached to the motherboard.
Small circuit boards or cards that fit into a computer’s expansion slots such as video adapters, LAN cards and sound cards are all forms of expansion boards. The network interface card connects the computer to a local area network (LAN). Some circuit boards are made to perform specific tasks. Many printers and digital cameras use flexible circuit boards that also operate as connecting cables. Circuit boards that are used in rough environments are generally protected by a coat of epoxy resin or silicone rubber for protection.

Circuit board assembly is done by using automated assembly lines that do the work in stages, beginning right from printing the board to soldering the components, such as chips and resistors, and fitting the various connectors and cables. The final circuit board is then delivered and ready to be used or placed into a larger component.

Considering that the shelf life of electronic components is somewhat limited by frequent new brands, the assembly line needs to be scalable and should be able to produce new boards with the least amount of expense and turn around time. PCBs are subjected to various types of tests such as: in-circuit tests, JATAG analysis, X-ray laminography, flying probe test for prototypes and functional testing.

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