Hydraulic motors are motors that transfer energy to mechanical applications. These motors are powered primarily by hydraulic liquids such as oil or water. A hydraulic system generally contains two pistons which are separated by a pipe that is filled with incompressible oil. When pressure is exerted on one of the pistons it causes the other piston to rise because the fluid or oil cannot be compressed. If the two pistons are of different size there will be a multiplication or division of power each time the energy is transferred from piston to piston. This action means a large amount of force can be generated from a significantly smaller effort.
Hydraulic motors are often used when the use of other types of motors isn’t feasible. Hydraulic motors are capable of creating large amounts of torque by using incompressible liquids as the power generation source. Because hydraulic motors can produce a large amount of energy they are ideal for use in the construction industry and other heavy duty industrial environments. Hydraulic motors are often found in heavy operating machines such as cranes, winches and ditching machines.
However, with tremendous technological progress there are an immense variety of hydraulic motors available for use in the industrial sector. Choosing the right motor for your job has become a job in itself. Some common types of hydraulic motors are axial piston, radial piston, internal gear and vane. These types of hydraulic motors are differentiated on the basis of the mechanisms that are used to generate energy.
Some other factors which need to be considered when selecting a hydraulic motor are: the operating pressure, the temperature, the power, the fluid viscosity and the motor weight. The operating pressure refers to the pressure of the hydraulic liquid that is delivered to the motor. The temperature and power refer to the temperature range and the power capabilities of the motor. Fluid viscosity is measured in centipoises and it refers to the viscosity that the motor can bear. The weight of the motor is also an important factor especially depending upon the scale of the industrial application.
Because hydraulic motors operate on the principle of hydraulics, they work with incompressible liquids. You can do a lot of damage to a hydraulic motor of you try to run it without the liquid so make sure the liquid is in the motor casing before starting it.