There are well over 144 types of dust in the air that can cause problems in industrial environments. These dust particles can create havoc with machinery, manufactured products, service quality and the environment. They can also cause health problems with workers. Dust collectors are used in many settings to either recover valuable granular solid or powder from process streams or to remove solid pollutants from the air. They are often used as air pollution control devices to keep the air at high quality or to improve it.
Dust collectors may be single motorized units or a small network of devices that are designed to separate particulate matter from the process air. A network of devices may also include mist collectors and smoke collectors. Mist collectors remove fine liquid droplets from the air and are often used to collect metal working fluids, and coolant or oil mists. Fume and smoke collectors are designed to remove sub micron size particulate from the air. These devices can effectively reduce or eliminate particulate matter and gas streams from various industrial processes such as welding, rubber and plastic processing, high speed machining with coolants, tempering, and quenching.
The five most common types of dust collectors are ambient units, collection booths, downdraft tables, source collector or portable units, and stationary units. Cartridge and cyclone are two other types of dust collectors and are a little more complex. These devices are available as portable, ceiling mounted and compact units. Cartridge collectors offer cross ventilation and downward flow options and are ideal for medium volume dust collection. Cyclone dust collectors are ideal for handling large particle dust from thing such as woodwork, polishing and grinding machines.
Dust collectors come in single and two-stage options. Single-stage dust collectors are recommended for lightweight dust collection; while two-stage dust collectors can handle more rigorous dust collection needs. Within a single stage collector, dust particles and debris come directly into contact with the blower impeller, which can result in blower imbalance in the case of abrasive dust collection. The cyclone is a cone-shaped container through which dust-filled air enters. The efficiency of the dust separation will be better if the cyclone and cone body are longer.